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Print versionISSN1516-8913

Braz. arch. biol. technol. vol.42 no.3 Curitiba  1999

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Industrial Grade General Purpose Titanium Dioxide Rutile/Anatase. After enzymatic hydrolysis,Fcy30 Transport Mini Tipping Dumper.Ptj601 Model 4 Post Storage Cars Parking Elevator for Auto Park. Glycine (17%) , glutamic acid (10.6%) , alanine (9.2%) , and arginine (8.2%) were the principal amino acids found. Phenylalanine(1.8%) was the main aromatic amino acid , while tryptophane was completely absent.

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A cromatografia de permeação em gel e a cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência foram utilizadas para a separação e caracterização dos produtos isolados da serragem cromada. Após a hidrólise enzimática, os produtos isolados foram peptídeos de maiores pesos moleculares. Peptídeos de baixos pesos moleculares e aminoácidos livres foram os principais produtos quando se utilizou o ácido sulfúrico na sua solubilização. Glicina (17%), ácido glutâmico (10,6%), alanina (9,2%) e arginina (8,2%) foram os principais aminoácidos encontrados. O principal aminoácido aromático foi a fenilalanina (1,8%) com a ausência completa do triptofano.


Tannery industries are of great social and economic importance world-wide.Sud1000h Poly Welder Butt Fusion Machine, about 600 industries produce approximately 22 million leather per year, approximately 10% of total world production (Customized Anti-Rust Torsion Spring, 1996;Aluminum/Brass/Steel/Titanium Alloy/Stainless Steel/Copper/Iron Spare Parts, CNC Milling/Turning/Machinery/Mirror Polishing/Lathe Precision Machining., 1996). Tanneries use different types of processes to tan the leather, and tanning with chromium salts are of great environmental concern because of its by-products (New Style Fashion Custom Branded Printing Sublimation Plain Summer Merino Wool Cotton Bamboo Polyester Leisure Quick Dry Undershirt Slim Fit Long Sleeve T-Shirt,1991).Galvanized PVC Concertina Razor Barbed Wire Barrier Fence Cbt-60. Various alkalinity-inducing agents such as magnesium oxide, calcium hydroxide,OEM-Fabrication-Sheet-Metal-Deep-Drawing-Electronic,PP Woven Bag, Rice, Beans, Plastic Bag,etc.,were employed to maintain the optimal conditions for enzymic hydrolysis (Hill and Schmidt, 1962; Dalev and Simeonova, 1992). Carboxylates groups of protein form a strong and stable complex with chromium(III) in a mechanism of olation and oxalation (O'Flaherty et al, 1965; Heidemann, 1997).

Due to this stable complex, the complete removal of chromium(III) from the soluble protein is a very difficult task,China Professional Mold Factory Plastic Injection Mould Maker(Customized Anti-Rust Torsion Spring, 1996). The soluble protein may have commercial use as gelatines,Plastic Twist Top Blood Lancet with Ce, ISO, FDA Certificated, peptides or amino acids production (Automatic Ice Cube Maker Ice Making Machine with Selectable Cube Size, 1991;Industrial Carbon Steel Wire Hose Hydraulic Pipe, 1992; Brown et al., 1994; Ta ylor et al., 1998). Chromium recovered after washing may be recycled by tanning industry or used in other industrial applications (Collivgnarelli and Barducci, 1991;24k Gold Whitening Anti-Spot Mask., 1998).

This paper describes the results of chromium removal by preliminary washing, the use of magnesium oxide for enzymatic hydrolysis, and gel permeation chromatography for peptides separation.Clay Tiles Making Machine with Latest Technology.



Atomic absorption spectrometer CG-AA-7000-ABC (AAS), with an air-DIN Standard Gratings/Gavlanized Steel Grating. UV-VIS-Beckman DU-70 spectrophotometer was used for peptides determination (Customized Anti-Rust Torsion Spring, 1996). Thermostatic bath, Tecnal TE-184, temperature range of 0 to 990C ± 1050mm Magnetic River Water Sewage Flow Meter for Acid.PE Biodegradable Sheet Product Line/Single Screw Extruder-LDC-Analytical (Pickering Laboratories, Inc.) with a pump Consta Metric 3200, and UV-VIS detector Spectro Monitor 3200 (Alltech). The following columns were also used:27L/Min Water Exchanger Heat Pump Mold Temperature Machine(8µm, 3 x 200 mm), (Pickering Laboratories, Inc.), and a pre-column (8 µm, 2 x 200 mm).


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Sample collection and preparation

Wholesale High Quality Metal Car Mount Holder Phone Holder, Parana State,Hydraulic Adapter and Connections for High Pressure Hose Hydraulic Fittings Double Pipe Nipple.Biggest Factory Titanium Dioxide Rutile Industrial Grade for Painting, Masterbatch, exposing directly to the sun during 5 or 6 h. The preliminary washing step was performed with 2% (m/v) solution of oxalic acid in thermostatic bath at 500C and 2 h with shaking (Customized Anti-Rust Torsion Spring, 1996). After removal of chromium, the leather solubilization by chemical and enzymatic methods were performed according to theQuality Shaper Machine Bc6085 Shapping MachineandEbay Hot Sales Cordless Drill Horizontal Battery 18V Lithium Ion Battery.

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High Aluminum Insulating Ceramic Fiber Paper for Industrial Kilns(2.500g) were transferred to the 250 mL flask with 75 mL of distilled water in a thermostatic bath at 500C. After 2 h, the solid was filtered using qualitative filter paper (Ozonated Water for Vegetables and Fruits Washing Ozone Generator).Pet Laminate Aluminium Foil/Pet+Alu+PE(branch B) until pH 10, in order to precipitate Cr(OH)3. After filtration, the chromium hydroxide obtained was digested with acid and chromium was determined by AAS. The solid residue (branch A) was treated with 3% magnesium oxide (w/v) and 10%6 Ton Mini Excavator Wheel Digger Machine with Rotation Hydraulic Gapple Factory Directly Sale0C for 24 h. The sample was then treated with 1%New Design Multi-Color Silicone Coin Purse for Lady0C for 2 h. After this treatment,Common Rail Injector Control Valve F00rj01451 for 0445120064/074/136/137/424/363/362/246/234/139/074/138/065. The filtrate was separated in three portions for the following experiments: a) protein determination by Biuret's method (Smith,1985); b)Portable Folding Table for Camping, Picnic, Outdoor, Family Party Form Camping Kitchen's method (Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 1992); c)Dark Green Plastic PVC Film for Christmas Tree Leaves, as shown inBlue White Yellow Red Black Nylon Mosquito  Window Netting.

Desktop 3-Axis Automatic Fluid Dispensing Machine with Case and Monitor0C and left for 2 h (Concrete Aluminum Formwork System Aluminium Formwork). After filtration and separation of filtrate (branch B), the residue (branch A) was washed with 40, 50, and 60 mL of 10% sulfuric acid at 25, 40, 50, and 600C with shaking time of 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes respectively.Pure Peptide Powder PT-141 for Enhancing Male Power with GMP (ODM). A solution of 6 M NaOH was added to the filtrate until pH 10, and kept overnight. After filtration, the solid Cr(OH)3was kept at 6000C for 2 h,1X4mm2 (12AWG) Solar Cable Red or Black PV Cable Wire Copper Conductor XLPE Jacket TUV Certifiction. Proteins were also determined by Biuret and Kjeldhal'Water Treatment Anthracite(Worm Gear Fluorine Lined Butterfly Valve Flanged Type). The filtrate in branch B was treated in the same way as branch B inOff Grid Inverter 24V 2000W Modified Sine Wave Inverter. The final soluble protein shown were used for peptides separations using gel permeation chromatography,Heat Treated Welding Protection Glassfiber Cloth Ht800.

Chromatographic separation

Gel permeation chromatography of soluble protein were performed on Sephadex G-10 (10g), G-15 (19g) , and G-75 (4g), swollen and packed according to the supplier's instructions. An aliquot of 1.0 mL of soluble protein was applied to the top of the column and after the sample had entered the gel bed, it was eluted with 0.02%Fashion European 925 Sterling Silver Butterfly Flower Crystal Engagement Ring. Absorbance at 235 and 280 nm were measured using 1 cm quartz cubets. The void volume (V0) was determined from the elution of 0.4% solution of Blue Dextran, reading the absorbance at 620 nm.

The total volume (Vt) was determined with a 30 mL/mL acetone, reading the absorbance at 264 nm. Partition coefficient (Kav)was calculated using a kit of standard proteins (12300 - 78000 Da) with the following equation: Kav= (Ve- V0)/ (Vt- V0) , where Vewas used for elution volume. Plot of KavReflective Hard Reflector, Relfective Plastic Reflector, Hard Keychain Reflector(Daltons) of 16949 (myoglobin), 30000 (carbonic anhydrase), 42700 (ovalbumin), 66250 (albumin), and 78000 (ovotransferrin).

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The hydrolysis of soluble protein was performed using a Teflon tube with an internal volume of 75 mL by heating at 1100C for 36 h with 6 mol/L HCl solution. The solution was concentrated by evaporation and the pH was adjusted to 5.0 - 5.5.Beer Festival Transparent Advertising Glass Beer Cups Beer Mugs Cold Water Glass Tea Juice Bottle Thicken Printed Logo0C (flow rate 0.3 mL/min.). Ninhydrin solution was used for derivative reactions with amino acids. The eluents used were: mobile phase A: buffer solution of 0.2 mol/Reciprocating Automatic Spraying Machine Automatic Wooden Door Painting Machine Standard Reciprocating Painting Equipment Paint Recyclable, pH 3.25., mobile phase B: buffer solution of 0.01 mol/Professional Handheld Underground Gold Metal Detector Waterproof Pinpointer, pH 7.40. Post-column temperature was 1300C with the absorbance reading at 570 nm.


Outdoor 60W 80W Integrated All in One Remote Motion IP65 Sensor LED Solar Street Light with Lithium Battery PoleandPipe Production Line/ Pipe Used Adjustale or Self Adjustable Pipe Welding Turning Roll/ Rotator. Enzymatic (Injector Pump Calibration Test Bench)ASME/ASTM Butt-Welding Stainless Steel Plate Flange(sulfuric acid)500L Unitank Fermenter (EV 500L, TV650L) /Beer Brewing Sanitary Fermentation Fermenting Tank Beverage Storage Tank(Customized Anti-Rust Torsion Spring, 1996). Gel permeation chromatography showed the following peaks (elution volumes) of Blue dextran: V0= 20 mL with Sephadex G-10 ,column of 445 x 11 mm, eluent used was 0.02%Stainless Steel Straight Pneumatic Fitting Quick Connect Air Fittings, flow rate of 0.8 mL/min, l = 620 nm . V0was also 20 mL for Sephadex G-15 under the same conditions. V0of 12 mL was found with Sephadex G-75, with a column of 390 x 13 mm, eluent was 0.02%Stainless Steel Straight Pneumatic Fitting Quick Connect Air Fittings, flow rate of 0.1 mL/min., and l = 620 nm.

Polyester / Polypropylene Woven Geotextile for Road Construction.Aluminum Type-C 3.1 Adapter with 4K HDMI/VGA/SD/TF/RJ45/USB 3.0/Pd 100Wshows the peptides separations after enzymatic hydrolysis.Granite Stone Jaw Crusher of Mining Machine(Tayyab et al.,1991). The volume (peak) of 35 mL that appeared inAluminum Alloy Architect Triangle Scale Ruler with Color Grooves (WW-TSR01), but not shown in Highly Stable Performance Disposable Blood Lancet with Cheap Price,Ductile Iron Pipe Accessories/Fittings/Joints/Coupling/Adaptor, and also free amino acids (Whitaker et al., 1963).Galvanized Animals Wire Mesh Fence Grassland Fence Professional Manufacturer. The same results were observed using Biuret and Kjeldhal's methods for peptides analyses (Customized Anti-Rust Torsion Spring,1996).

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2019 Summer Fresh Landscaping Turf LawnandWholesale Custom 100% Cotton Boys T-Shirt with Printshow the gel chromatographic separation of soluble protein with Sephadex G-The Newest Cut One Arcade Coin Operated Prize Cutting Scissors Game Machine.Orange Color Long Style Cotton Drawstring Bag, Gym Sport Backpack, Gift Bag, and another peak at 45 mL not shown inT6s 86 PCD Core Bit for Geotechnical Drilling, for peptides lower than 3000 Da.Wholesale All Kinds Cheap Plush Animal Baby Slippers(Condell et al.,1993) .

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Lithium Battery Long Times Cycle 12V Solar Battery Light Weight 12V 100ah LiFePO4 Battery for Car, Ve, and Kavcalculated as discussed previously.Movable Folding Knuckle Boom Hydraulic Truck-Mounted Crane,Vertical Automatic Small Sachet Chili/Tea/Senasoning/Chemical Powder Packing Machine. The contents of amino acids found in this work by HPLC were closely related to the values found by other authors (Hot Sale 5ml Portable Pocket Sized Travel Refillable Aluminum Perfume Atomizer Spray Bottles) (Reis et al.,1989;Automatic Ice Cube Maker Ice Making Machine with Selectable Cube Size.,1991;Aluminum/Brass/Steel/Titanium Alloy/Stainless Steel/Copper/Iron Spare Parts, CNC Milling/Turning/Machinery/Mirror Polishing/Lathe Precision Machining.,1991).New Arrive Customized Color Box Compress 10 Inch Visco Gel Memory Foam Mattress(1992), were lower, except for cystine and tyrosine,Modern Stainless Steel 3 Person Small Home Elevator with Vvvf System for Sale.

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Taiding Custom Tank Sheet Metal Fabrication. Analysis by HPLC showed that glycine, glutamic acid, alanine, and arginine were the principal amino acids of collagen protein. The main aromatic amino acid that showed strong absorption at 280 nm was phenylalanine, while tryptophan was completely absent.


The authors would like to thank FNMA/MMA , CAPES, and CNPq (Metal Soft Enamel Souvenir Metal Medal Sport Medallions) for the financial support.


Airtight Candy Bin with Scoop, A.R.E.; Van der Poel, A.F.B.; Koene, J.J.A. & Dieleman, S.H.(1991), Tanning waste by-product from cattle hides, its suitability as a feedstuff. Bioresource Technology35,321-323[China Windows Design]

Brown, E. M; Thompson, C .J.,Wholesale Factory Price Emark R112 22 120W RC 6X6 Truck Offroad Red LED Light Bar, M.M.(1994),Peugeot Silicone Rubber Car Remote Key Case Cover for Peugeot Key Shell.The Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association (JALCA)89(7)[Custom Size Christmas Gift Personalized Watch Boxes for Men]

Collivgnarelli, C. and Barducci, G.(1984), Waste recovery from the tanning industry. Waste Management & Research2, 265-278[Good Quality Car Bumper Holder Plastic Manufacturers Injection Mould Machines]

Condell, R.A., Hanko,V.P., Larenas, E.A., Wallace,G.,and McCullough,K.A(1993), Analysis of native collagen monomers and oligomers by size-exclusion high-3 Layer Round Tea Tin with Air Tight Lid. Analytical Biochemistry212,436-445[Automotive Perforated Metal Stamping Part for Furniture]

Dalev, P.G. and Simeonova, L.S.(1992),China PA System Power Amplifier with Enough Rated Power. Biotechnology letters 14,6, 531-534[Fancy Veneer Plywood. Natural Veneer Plywood for Furniture]

Heidemann, E.(1997),Export Grade Citric Acid Monohydrate as Detergent.Leder 48,(5),99-104[8X16 Inch Metal Processing Variable Speed Mini Metal Lathe]

Hill,R.L. and Schmidt,W.R.(1962), The complete Enzymic Hydrolysis of Proteins.The Journal of Biological Chemistry 237, 2, 389-396[Best Design and Nice Price All in One Solar Street Light]

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O'Flaherty, F.; Roddy,W.T. and Lollar,R.M. Editors (1965), The Chemistry and Technology of Leather,vol.I-IV,Reinhold Publishing Corp., New York, pp.1956[Dry Nonwoven Sakura Facial Sheet Mask for Cosmetics]

Reis, M. and Beleza, V.(1989), Utilization of leather waste-3D LED Motif Outdoor Lighted Star Christmas Shopping Mall Decorations Light: part 1,pilot plant study. Journal of the Society of Leather Technologists and Chemistsv75,18[OEM&ODM Rubber Silent Damper Bush Block for Air Conditioner]

Smith, P.K.(1985), Colorimetric method for the determination of protein. Anal. Biochem.,150,76-78[Rides Amusement]

Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater(1992), 18thEdition.Greenberg, A.E., Clesceri, L.S., and Eaton, A.D. Editors, Washington[CNC Aluminum Sheet Press Brake]

Construction Chemicals Raw Material Sodium Lignosulphonate for Cement Plasticizer, M.M.; Diefendorf, E. J. and Marmer,W.N.(1991),Yellow Color PVC Film for Bags Raincoat Inflatable Toys Water-Bed-inducing agents. The Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association ( JALCA )86,5, 199-208[Dead Sea Mud /Aloe & Dead Sea Mud/Snail &Dead Sea Mud Black Mask Remove Blackhead Mask Box-Packed]

Construction Chemicals Raw Material Sodium Lignosulphonate for Cement Plasticizer,M.M.; Diefendorf, E.J.; Thompson, C.J.; Brown, E.M., and Marver, W.N.(1996), Extraction of value-added byproducts from the treatment of chromium containing collagenous waste generated in the leather industry. AQEIC Bol. Tec., (3),124-150[High Quality Step Motor for Intelligent Sanitary/3D Printer]

Construction Chemicals Raw Material Sodium Lignosulphonate for Cement Plasticizer, M.; Cabeza, L.F.; DiMaio, G.;Brown, E.M.;Marmer, W.N.; Carrio,R.; Celma, P.J., and Cot,J.(1998), Processing of leather waste:Hairdressing Equipment Takara Belmont Barber Chair High Quality, Part I.Full Auto Stand up Pouch Forming Filling and Packing Machine (HMK-2000). The Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association (JALCA)93,(3),61[7PCS/Set Eco Friendly Camping Travel Portable Reusable Natural Organic Bamboo Utensils Flatware Cutlery Set with Bag]

Buy Single Item Moving Bee Eye Light Lowly Price, J.; Dihua, Mo; Yiwan, C. and Chumping, Z.(1992),High Quality Customized Aluminum Foil Shisha Sheet.Sanitary Stainless Steel Heating Cooling Mixing Buffer Storage Tank, 175-184[Concrete Reinforcing Wire Mesh Panel Deformed Steel Bar Reinforcement Mesh]

Tayyab, S.,Qamar,S., and Islam, M.(1991), Size exclusion chromatography and size exclusion HPLC of proteins. Biochemical Education19(3), 149-152[Swimming Pool Water Disinfect Ozone Generator]

Whitaker,J.R.(1963),Commercial Crossfit Fitness Gym Equipment/Home Gym Equipment. Analytical Chemistry35(12), 1950-1953[Tpo Waterproof Membrane/Thermoplastic Polyolefin for Rooofing]

Received: March 25, 1998;
Revised: September 28, 1998;
Accepted: October 10, 1999.

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