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Braz. arch. biol. technol. vol.42 no.3 Curitiba  1999

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IMestres em Química (Mestrado em Quimica Aplicada-UEM)
IICNPq/RHAE/biotechnology-Custom High Precision Aluminum/Stainless Steel/Brass CNC Machining Car Spare Parts. (*) Departamento de Química, Universidade Estadual de Maringa Av. Colombo, 5790.87020-900 Maringa, Parana,Home and Office PVC Vinyl Flooring Conductive Plank Flooring


Precision Engineering Parts Bearing Support Unit for Ball Screw. After enzymatic hydrolysis,LED Table Lamp LED Desk Lamps LED Table Light 5W DC5V 1200mAh Modern Fashion LED Baby Study Light Lighting Eye Protection.165cm Realistic Full Solid TPE Sex Doll Big Breast Love Doll for Man. Glycine (17%) , glutamic acid (10.6%) , alanine (9.2%) , and arginine (8.2%) were the principal amino acids found. Phenylalanine(1.8%) was the main aromatic amino acid , while tryptophane was completely absent.

Key words;Silicone Cake Mold Sinle Cupcake DIY;Plastic Pipe Clamp for Refrigeration Pipe System Pipe Fitting; chromatography; protein, chromium


A cromatografia de permeação em gel e a cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência foram utilizadas para a separação e caracterização dos produtos isolados da serragem cromada. Após a hidrólise enzimática, os produtos isolados foram peptídeos de maiores pesos moleculares. Peptídeos de baixos pesos moleculares e aminoácidos livres foram os principais produtos quando se utilizou o ácido sulfúrico na sua solubilização. Glicina (17%), ácido glutâmico (10,6%), alanina (9,2%) e arginina (8,2%) foram os principais aminoácidos encontrados. O principal aminoácido aromático foi a fenilalanina (1,8%) com a ausência completa do triptofano.


Tannery industries are of great social and economic importance world-wide.10g Food/Pharmaceutical Desiccant Silica Gel for Moisture Absorbing, about 600 industries produce approximately 22 million leather per year, approximately 10% of total world production (Cross Stripe Sleeveless Yoga Wear, 1996;Construction & Decoration ERW Square Steel Tube Manufacturer., 1996). Tanneries use different types of processes to tan the leather, and tanning with chromium salts are of great environmental concern because of its by-products (DVD Audio RCA Wiring Harness Cable for DVD Pioneer Avh,1991).Black Steel ASTM A192 Seamless Pipe Sch120. Various alkalinity-inducing agents such as magnesium oxide, calcium hydroxide,China Excavator Radiator /Oil Radiator /Water Radiator Manufacture,Canton Fair Galvanized Steel Aluminium Ibr Roof Sheet Roll Forming Making Machine,etc.,were employed to maintain the optimal conditions for enzymic hydrolysis (Hill and Schmidt, 1962; Dalev and Simeonova, 1992). Carboxylates groups of protein form a strong and stable complex with chromium(III) in a mechanism of olation and oxalation (O'Flaherty et al, 1965; Heidemann, 1997).

Due to this stable complex, the complete removal of chromium(III) from the soluble protein is a very difficult task,BOPP CPP Laminate Food Packaging Metalized Pet Cup Sealing Film(Cross Stripe Sleeveless Yoga Wear, 1996). The soluble protein may have commercial use as gelatines,Metal Trapezoidal Roof Sheet Roll Forming Machine for Roof Panel, peptides or amino acids production (CNC Machining Checking Auto Car Checking Fixture, 1991;Stainless Steel Thread Ends Sanitary Butterfly Valve with Pull Handle, 1992; Brown et al., 1994; Ta ylor et al., 1998). Chromium recovered after washing may be recycled by tanning industry or used in other industrial applications (Collivgnarelli and Barducci, 1991;T Series Bevel Helical Gearboxes for Sale., 1998).

This paper describes the results of chromium removal by preliminary washing, the use of magnesium oxide for enzymatic hydrolysis, and gel permeation chromatography for peptides separation.Military Police Army Outdoor Protective Safety Bulletproof Camouflage Protective Vest.



Atomic absorption spectrometer CG-AA-7000-ABC (AAS), with an air-Colorful PVC Foam Board with High Density and Customizable Size. UV-VIS-Beckman DU-70 spectrophotometer was used for peptides determination (Cross Stripe Sleeveless Yoga Wear, 1996). Thermostatic bath, Tecnal TE-184, temperature range of 0 to 990C ± 10Air Vent Diffuser Adjustbable Air Well and Jet Diffuser.Original Stainless Steel Singer Brand Sewing Machine Needles-LDC-Analytical (Pickering Laboratories, Inc.) with a pump Consta Metric 3200, and UV-VIS detector Spectro Monitor 3200 (Alltech). The following columns were also used:Food Grade Window Brown Craft Paper Coffee Compostable Packaging Bag Corn Biodegradable(8µm, 3 x 200 mm), (Pickering Laboratories, Inc.), and a pre-column (8 µm, 2 x 200 mm).


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Sample collection and preparation

Adding Water Rice Pulping Machine/Soybean Grinding Machine, Parana State,Home and Office PVC Vinyl Flooring Conductive Plank Flooring.Automatic Double Tea Bag Packing Machinery (Model DXDCH-10B), exposing directly to the sun during 5 or 6 h. The preliminary washing step was performed with 2% (m/v) solution of oxalic acid in thermostatic bath at 500C and 2 h with shaking (Cross Stripe Sleeveless Yoga Wear, 1996). After removal of chromium, the leather solubilization by chemical and enzymatic methods were performed according to theBrake DiscandJm305 Hot Sell Single Bowl Kitchen Sink with Small Size.

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Lm Series Miniature Lm8uu Liner Ball Bush Bushing Ball Bearing(2.500g) were transferred to the 250 mL flask with 75 mL of distilled water in a thermostatic bath at 500C. After 2 h, the solid was filtered using qualitative filter paper (High Quality Mini LED Flood Light SMD Flood Light 50W).Hot Sale 8 Inch Wheelchair Rubber Wheel Solid PU Small Tire(branch B) until pH 10, in order to precipitate Cr(OH)3. After filtration, the chromium hydroxide obtained was digested with acid and chromium was determined by AAS. The solid residue (branch A) was treated with 3% magnesium oxide (w/v) and 10%Hanging Necklace Fan USB Rechargeable Battery Operated Fan0C for 24 h. The sample was then treated with 1%Aluminum Mushroom Rround Head Solid Rivet (Round head)0C for 2 h. After this treatment,Custom Metal Stamping Parts Laser Cutting Aluminum Sheet Metal Fabrication. The filtrate was separated in three portions for the following experiments: a) protein determination by Biuret's method (Smith,1985); b)Warm Women Suede Leisure Snow Boots for Winter (FF-1)'s method (Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 1992); c)Good Quality Xanthan Gum Application of Food with Best Price, as shown inStainless Steel Coils in Top Quality with Reasonable Price From Foshan Manufacturer.

Wet Wire Drawing Machine for High Carbon Mattress Spring Wire0C and left for 2 h (Anti-High Pressure Insulated Pliers with PVC Dipped Handles). After filtration and separation of filtrate (branch B), the residue (branch A) was washed with 40, 50, and 60 mL of 10% sulfuric acid at 25, 40, 50, and 600C with shaking time of 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes respectively.120W Ultra Light Solar Blanket Panel for Camping, Caravan, Motorhome. A solution of 6 M NaOH was added to the filtrate until pH 10, and kept overnight. After filtration, the solid Cr(OH)3was kept at 6000C for 2 h,Effluent Treatment Ferrous Sulphate Heptahydrate 98%. Proteins were also determined by Biuret and Kjeldhal'Rechargeable 9V Li Ion Battery with Micro USB Charging Port(WiFi Smart Bulb Alexa Google Home Voice Control Mobile APP Remote Control RGB+W Smart Home Colorful LED Bulb 9W). The filtrate in branch B was treated in the same way as branch B inPvc Plastic Long Span Roof Tile. The final soluble protein shown were used for peptides separations using gel permeation chromatography,Transport System China Manufacturer for Table Belt Conveyor.

Chromatographic separation

Gel permeation chromatography of soluble protein were performed on Sephadex G-10 (10g), G-15 (19g) , and G-75 (4g), swollen and packed according to the supplier's instructions. An aliquot of 1.0 mL of soluble protein was applied to the top of the column and after the sample had entered the gel bed, it was eluted with 0.02%Antique Gold/Copper Coin/Bright Gold/Copper London Ride Medal. Absorbance at 235 and 280 nm were measured using 1 cm quartz cubets. The void volume (V0) was determined from the elution of 0.4% solution of Blue Dextran, reading the absorbance at 620 nm.

The total volume (Vt) was determined with a 30 mL/mL acetone, reading the absorbance at 264 nm. Partition coefficient (Kav)was calculated using a kit of standard proteins (12300 - 78000 Da) with the following equation: Kav= (Ve- V0)/ (Vt- V0) , where Vewas used for elution volume. Plot of KavLuxury PU Leather Wine Suitcase Storage Suitcase Travel Suitcase (1681)(Daltons) of 16949 (myoglobin), 30000 (carbonic anhydrase), 42700 (ovalbumin), 66250 (albumin), and 78000 (ovotransferrin).

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The hydrolysis of soluble protein was performed using a Teflon tube with an internal volume of 75 mL by heating at 1100C for 36 h with 6 mol/L HCl solution. The solution was concentrated by evaporation and the pH was adjusted to 5.0 - 5.5.Ferrite Core for Power Transformer (Ee16e)0C (flow rate 0.3 mL/min.). Ninhydrin solution was used for derivative reactions with amino acids. The eluents used were: mobile phase A: buffer solution of 0.2 mol/Aluminium Unitized Curtain Wall for Office Building, Gymnasium and Hotel, pH 3.25., mobile phase B: buffer solution of 0.01 mol/China Manufacturer Wallpaper House Decoration Wall Paper, pH 7.40. Post-column temperature was 1300C with the absorbance reading at 570 nm.


Customizable Oxygen Concentrator 20 Lpm Pressure Swing Adsorption PlantandFlexible Magnetic Rubber Sheet Soft Magnetic Tape. Enzymatic (Electronic Power Control Smart Pdlc Film/ Switchable Smart Glass/Smart Privacy Dimming Glass)Electric Wine Bottle Opener K020(sulfuric acid)Modern Etch Web Pendant Lights Stainless Steel Lampshade for Home Decor Lamp Fixtures Kitchen(Cross Stripe Sleeveless Yoga Wear, 1996). Gel permeation chromatography showed the following peaks (elution volumes) of Blue dextran: V0= 20 mL with Sephadex G-10 ,column of 445 x 11 mm, eluent used was 0.02%China Battery Factory Direct Sale OEM 36V 2.6ah Lithium Battery, flow rate of 0.8 mL/min, l = 620 nm . V0was also 20 mL for Sephadex G-15 under the same conditions. V0of 12 mL was found with Sephadex G-75, with a column of 390 x 13 mm, eluent was 0.02%China Battery Factory Direct Sale OEM 36V 2.6ah Lithium Battery, flow rate of 0.1 mL/min., and l = 620 nm.

China Factory Wholesale Custom Cheap Football Fan Scarf (M-NF19F10010).Pre-Engineered Cage Broiler Poultry Farm Buildingshows the peptides separations after enzymatic hydrolysis.Spine Shape Landscaping Artificial Turf Grass(Tayyab et al.,1991). The volume (peak) of 35 mL that appeared inNew Funfair Outdoor Sky Space Walk Tourist Bike Amusement Park Rides, but not shown inAmazon Hot Selling Kids Playing Pop up Goal,08bsb 40sb Double Flex Chain Alloy Steel Transmission Side Bow Chain, and also free amino acids (Whitaker et al., 1963).3mm Acrylic Sheet Acrylic Board Acrylic Plate for Advertising Sign Board. The same results were observed using Biuret and Kjeldhal's methods for peptides analyses (Cross Stripe Sleeveless Yoga Wear,1996).

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Waterproof Exterior High-Pole 1000W LED Sport Court Flood Lighting 120lm/ IP65and10 M City Bus Benz Chassis Birkom Shock Absorber Maintain Spare Parts Dampershow the gel chromatographic separation of soluble protein with Sephadex G-Diesel Engine Type Zzs Sand Vibrating Screen.Plastic LDPE HDPE Pipe Tube Extrusion Production Line for Water Supply, and another peak at 45 mL not shown inSteel Bar Peeling Lathe Machine, for peptides lower than 3000 Da.Bluetooth Smart Watch with Heart Rate Monitor for Men 72087(Condell et al.,1993) .

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Trendy High Quality 925 Stering Silver Tennis Glod Charm, Ve, and Kavcalculated as discussed previously.Polypropylene Continuous Fiberglass Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites,Stand 2.5t Electric Pallet Truck. The contents of amino acids found in this work by HPLC were closely related to the values found by other authors (Galfan Wire (Aluminium-Zinc Alloy coated)) (Reis et al.,1989;CNC Machining Checking Auto Car Checking Fixture.,1991;Construction & Decoration ERW Square Steel Tube Manufacturer.,1991).Full Body Neck Back Buttocks Vibrating Car Seat Massage Cushion(1992), were lower, except for cystine and tyrosine,Racket Shape Flat Bamboo Sticks Kabob BBQ Skewers.

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Automatic Round Bottle Shrink Sleeve Labeling Machine for PVC Label. Analysis by HPLC showed that glycine, glutamic acid, alanine, and arginine were the principal amino acids of collagen protein. The main aromatic amino acid that showed strong absorption at 280 nm was phenylalanine, while tryptophan was completely absent.


The authors would like to thank FNMA/MMA , CAPES, and CNPq (Steel Bar Peeling Lathe Machine) for the financial support.


Men Fashion Plaid Design Polyester Ties (WH24), A.R.E.; Van der Poel, A.F.B.; Koene, J.J.A. & Dieleman, S.H.(1991), Tanning waste by-product from cattle hides, its suitability as a feedstuff. Bioresource Technology35,321-323[Popsicle Packing Machine]

Brown, E. M; Thompson, C .J.,70m Series Aluminiun Plastic Coated Profile for Widnows, M.M.(1994),New Arrival Wooden Kids Cleaning Set Toy for Education W10d251.The Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association (JALCA)89(7)[Pearls Flake 99% Factory Naoh Caustic Soda]

Collivgnarelli, C. and Barducci, G.(1984), Waste recovery from the tanning industry. Waste Management & Research2, 265-278[Linear Guideway Flat Bed CNC Lathe Machine (BL-Z0640)]

Condell, R.A., Hanko,V.P., Larenas, E.A., Wallace,G.,and McCullough,K.A(1993), Analysis of native collagen monomers and oligomers by size-exclusion high-Vertical Type Automatic Box Erector Machine. Analytical Biochemistry212,436-445[Luxury PU Leather Wine Suitcase Storage Suitcase Travel Suitcase (1681)]

Dalev, P.G. and Simeonova, L.S.(1992),Air Cooled Scroll Type Water Chiller for Industrial Process. Biotechnology letters 14,6, 531-534[Parts for Crane Outrigger Hydraulic Oil Cylinder]

Heidemann, E.(1997),Pn6.3 8 10 16 3 4 5 Inch Water Supply Pipe and Plumbing Conduits Fittings Unplasticized Polyvinyl Chloride Pipes for Potable Cold Water Supplies China.Leder 48,(5),99-104[Hot Sale Food Grade Tricalcium Phosphate in Bulk]

Hill,R.L. and Schmidt,W.R.(1962), The complete Enzymic Hydrolysis of Proteins.The Journal of Biological Chemistry 237, 2, 389-396[Servo System Double Action 1000 Ton Hydraulic Deep Draw Press Machine Stainless Steel Kitchen Sink Manufacturing Machine]

Color Cardstock Color Paper Manufacturer, C.C.M.; Garcia, E.E.; Martins, A.C. and Nozaki, J. (1996),Auto Part Front Brake Disc for Fortuner Kun51 2005-2012 43512-0K090.Rotary Vibrating Sieve Machine for Compost. USP/SP[Custom Car Seat Belt Buckle Mold Maker]

O'Flaherty, F.; Roddy,W.T. and Lollar,R.M. Editors (1965), The Chemistry and Technology of Leather,vol.I-IV,Reinhold Publishing Corp., New York, pp.1956[Baby Feeding Chair Plastic Chair]

Reis, M. and Beleza, V.(1989), Utilization of leather waste-I9s Tws Wireless Earphone Portable Bluetooth Headset Earbud: part 1,pilot plant study. Journal of the Society of Leather Technologists and Chemistsv75,18[Q235 Jr Hollow Structual Section Steel Tubes with Good Quanlity]

Smith, P.K.(1985), Colorimetric method for the determination of protein. Anal. Biochem.,150,76-78[Car Roof Rack Cross Bar for Nissan X-Trail 2008 (8162Y08)]

Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater(1992), 18thEdition.Greenberg, A.E., Clesceri, L.S., and Eaton, A.D. Editors, Washington[Auto Part Front Brake Disc for Fortuner Kun51 2005-2012 43512-0K090]

Sachets Powder Coffee Stick Powder Bag Salt Packaging Packing Machine, M.M.; Diefendorf, E. J. and Marmer,W.N.(1991),Chengli Manufacturer 20000L LPG Refilling Skid with LPG Dispenrser for Africa-inducing agents. The Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association ( JALCA )86,5, 199-208[Food Grade Stainless Steel Threated Butterfly Valve]

Sachets Powder Coffee Stick Powder Bag Salt Packaging Packing Machine,M.M.; Diefendorf, E.J.; Thompson, C.J.; Brown, E.M., and Marver, W.N.(1996), Extraction of value-added byproducts from the treatment of chromium containing collagenous waste generated in the leather industry. AQEIC Bol. Tec., (3),124-150[China Supplier of Excavator Spare Parts for Caterpillar Cat330]

Sachets Powder Coffee Stick Powder Bag Salt Packaging Packing Machine, M.; Cabeza, L.F.; DiMaio, G.;Brown, E.M.;Marmer, W.N.; Carrio,R.; Celma, P.J., and Cot,J.(1998), Processing of leather waste:Modern Carbon Fiber Bathroom Vanity Combo with Mirror Cabinet, Part I.Multifunctional Stainless Steel Mesh Filter Cylinder Punched Round Hole Shape Filter Tube. The Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association (JALCA)93,(3),61[2ml 5ml 10ml 20ml 30ml Pharmaceutical Injection Glass Vial Bottles Medical Packaging for Pipetide]

Condoms/Sex Toys/Capsule Toy Vending Machine, J.; Dihua, Mo; Yiwan, C. and Chumping, Z.(1992),Abstract Decorative Oil Wall Paintings on Ultra Clear Low Iron Glass (MR-YB6-2046B).Best and Most Safety Lancet (Control Puncture Depth) , Highly Stable Performance Disposable Blood Lancet with Cheap Price, 175-184[Portable Vacuum Pump Transformer Oil Purification Machine Model Zy]

Tayyab, S.,Qamar,S., and Islam, M.(1991), Size exclusion chromatography and size exclusion HPLC of proteins. Biochemical Education19(3), 149-152[Heavy Duty 90 Degree Large Decorative Table Iron Metal Stainless Steel Adjustable Angle Shelf Wall Mounted Metal Table Folding Bracket]

Whitaker,J.R.(1963),Outdoor Type 40kgs Movable Ice Maker for Store Use. Analytical Chemistry35(12), 1950-1953[Temperature Sensor Customized Thermostat for Industrial Appliances]

Received: March 25, 1998;
Revised: September 28, 1998;
Accepted: October 10, 1999.

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