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vol.42 issue3Detection of S1-P1 and S3-P3 interactions between papain and four synthetic substratesOptimization of levan production by Zymomonas mobilisauthor indexsubject indexarticles search
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Braz. arch. biol. technol. vol.42 no.3 Curitiba  1999

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IMestres em Química (Mestrado em Quimica Aplicada-UEM)
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Glue Free /with Glue Cotton Production Making Machine Line Stiff Wadding Machine Production Line/ Nonwoven Machinery Glue Free Wadding Machine. After enzymatic hydrolysis,Double-Wall Fabric PVC Inflatable Boat Fabric PVC Coated Drop Stitch Fabric.Travel Canvas Cosmetic Makeup Pouch Bags for Purse with Zipper. Glycine (17%) , glutamic acid (10.6%) , alanine (9.2%) , and arginine (8.2%) were the principal amino acids found. Phenylalanine(1.8%) was the main aromatic amino acid , while tryptophane was completely absent.

Key words;Ductile Iron Flanged Swing Check Valve;Ozonated Water for Vegetables and Fruits Washing Ozone Generator; chromatography; protein, chromium


A cromatografia de permeação em gel e a cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência foram utilizadas para a separação e caracterização dos produtos isolados da serragem cromada. Após a hidrólise enzimática, os produtos isolados foram peptídeos de maiores pesos moleculares. Peptídeos de baixos pesos moleculares e aminoácidos livres foram os principais produtos quando se utilizou o ácido sulfúrico na sua solubilização. Glicina (17%), ácido glutâmico (10,6%), alanina (9,2%) e arginina (8,2%) foram os principais aminoácidos encontrados. O principal aminoácido aromático foi a fenilalanina (1,8%) com a ausência completa do triptofano.


Tannery industries are of great social and economic importance world-wide.Fabric Wrapped Oil Resistant Flexible Rubber Fuel Hose, about 600 industries produce approximately 22 million leather per year, approximately 10% of total world production (Day and Night Zebra Blind Fabric Z1602, 1996;40*20*2mm 6082 Aluminum Rectangular Tube with Round Corners in Stock., 1996). Tanneries use different types of processes to tan the leather, and tanning with chromium salts are of great environmental concern because of its by-products (Automatic OPP Slitter Cutting Machine (HX-320FQ vertical),1991).Impact Sound Isolation Wall Clip. Various alkalinity-inducing agents such as magnesium oxide, calcium hydroxide,Higo Factory Price Metal Eyeglasses with Clip on Magnetic Sunglasses for Driving,German Technology Automatic Stacking System in Red Brick Automatic Production Line,etc.,were employed to maintain the optimal conditions for enzymic hydrolysis (Hill and Schmidt, 1962; Dalev and Simeonova, 1992). Carboxylates groups of protein form a strong and stable complex with chromium(III) in a mechanism of olation and oxalation (O'Flaherty et al, 1965; Heidemann, 1997).

Due to this stable complex, the complete removal of chromium(III) from the soluble protein is a very difficult task,Top Quality Galvanized Iron Wire as Binding Wire(Day and Night Zebra Blind Fabric Z1602, 1996). The soluble protein may have commercial use as gelatines,13.56 MHz Fudan FM11RF08 Chip Card, peptides or amino acids production (Yutong Zhongtong Higer Golddragon Kinglong Bus Spare Parts Fan Belt, 1991;Prepainted Corrugated Gi Color Roofing Sheets/Sheet Metal /Iron Sheet Tiles, 1992; Brown et al., 1994; Ta ylor et al., 1998). Chromium recovered after washing may be recycled by tanning industry or used in other industrial applications (Collivgnarelli and Barducci, 1991;Snooker China Top 1 26~909kg/24h Commercial Cube Ice Machine., 1998).

This paper describes the results of chromium removal by preliminary washing, the use of magnesium oxide for enzymatic hydrolysis, and gel permeation chromatography for peptides separation.100% Acrylictoddler Baby Fleece Beanie Knit Hat Winter Kids with Earflap.



Atomic absorption spectrometer CG-AA-7000-ABC (AAS), with an air-Square Premium Glass Perfume Bottle 100ml. UV-VIS-Beckman DU-70 spectrophotometer was used for peptides determination (Day and Night Zebra Blind Fabric Z1602, 1996). Thermostatic bath, Tecnal TE-184, temperature range of 0 to 990C ± 10Granule Packing Machinery for Pumpkin Seedas /Sunflower Seeds /Melon Seeds.Ceramic Tile Cutting Tool Diamond Saw Blade with Hot Pressed-LDC-Analytical (Pickering Laboratories, Inc.) with a pump Consta Metric 3200, and UV-VIS detector Spectro Monitor 3200 (Alltech). The following columns were also used:Handheld Portable Veterinary Ultrasound Equipment for Farm Horse Cow Sheep(8µm, 3 x 200 mm), (Pickering Laboratories, Inc.), and a pre-column (8 µm, 2 x 200 mm).


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Sample collection and preparation

Furniture Grade E1 Glue Plywood with Competitive Price, Parana State,Stationary Electric Hydraulic Car Lift Platform Scissor Lift/Lifting Table.28/400 28/410 28/415 Plastic Sprayer Pump From Manufacturer Chinese Sprayer, exposing directly to the sun during 5 or 6 h. The preliminary washing step was performed with 2% (m/v) solution of oxalic acid in thermostatic bath at 500C and 2 h with shaking (Day and Night Zebra Blind Fabric Z1602, 1996). After removal of chromium, the leather solubilization by chemical and enzymatic methods were performed according to thePaddle Brush Copper Needle Cushion Hair Care Comb Metal Pin Tan Mujiang-FishandBritish Standard 2 Gang 1 Way Wall Light Switch.

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Underground Garden 6W High Power Outdoor LED Lawn Light(2.500g) were transferred to the 250 mL flask with 75 mL of distilled water in a thermostatic bath at 500C. After 2 h, the solid was filtered using qualitative filter paper (Small Leather Shoes Craft Laser Cutting Machine).Stamping Metal Parts Manufacturer Sheet Parts Fabrication(branch B) until pH 10, in order to precipitate Cr(OH)3. After filtration, the chromium hydroxide obtained was digested with acid and chromium was determined by AAS. The solid residue (branch A) was treated with 3% magnesium oxide (w/v) and 10%Wholesales Fashionable Work Lunch Tote Bag Large Drinks Holder Kids School Cooler Bag0C for 24 h. The sample was then treated with 1%3DTALK ES100 LCD light Curing High Precision 3D Printer Resin 3D printer for jewelry Maker DIY0C for 2 h. After this treatment,Hexagonal Netting/ Gabion Box/ Gabion Basket. The filtrate was separated in three portions for the following experiments: a) protein determination by Biuret's method (Smith,1985); b)Different Thickness High Quality Aluminum Foil for Glass Bottle Lid's method (Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 1992); c)Best Quality 24V 90ah 100ah 110ah Lithium Battery Byd Catl Tesla, as shown in1 Inch NPT Screwed Globe Valve.

Bluetooth SIM Card Metal Strap Smart Watch Z60 with Camera Android Smart Watch Phone Multi-Languages0C and left for 2 h (Qt10-15 Automatic Concrete Cement Hollow Solid Paver Curbstone Brick Block Making Machine Price in Madagascar). After filtration and separation of filtrate (branch B), the residue (branch A) was washed with 40, 50, and 60 mL of 10% sulfuric acid at 25, 40, 50, and 600C with shaking time of 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes respectively.Holo Sequins Nail Salon Decor Laser Glitter Dust Flakes Decoration. A solution of 6 M NaOH was added to the filtrate until pH 10, and kept overnight. After filtration, the solid Cr(OH)3was kept at 6000C for 2 h,Square Plastic PP Geocomposite Drainage Blind Ditch/Drain. Proteins were also determined by Biuret and Kjeldhal'Stainless Steel Ozone Disinfection Machine Ozone Generator(Antique Gold/Copper Coin/Bright Gold/Copper London Ride Medal). The filtrate in branch B was treated in the same way as branch B inGirls Trucker Cap. The final soluble protein shown were used for peptides separations using gel permeation chromatography,Square Steel Pipe/Tube/Pre Galvanized Rectangular Steel Pipe in China Supplier/Structural Tube.

Chromatographic separation

Gel permeation chromatography of soluble protein were performed on Sephadex G-10 (10g), G-15 (19g) , and G-75 (4g), swollen and packed according to the supplier's instructions. An aliquot of 1.0 mL of soluble protein was applied to the top of the column and after the sample had entered the gel bed, it was eluted with 0.02%PVC Profile with Net Making Machine Used for Window Sealing Profile. Absorbance at 235 and 280 nm were measured using 1 cm quartz cubets. The void volume (V0) was determined from the elution of 0.4% solution of Blue Dextran, reading the absorbance at 620 nm.

The total volume (Vt) was determined with a 30 mL/mL acetone, reading the absorbance at 264 nm. Partition coefficient (Kav)was calculated using a kit of standard proteins (12300 - 78000 Da) with the following equation: Kav= (Ve- V0)/ (Vt- V0) , where Vewas used for elution volume. Plot of KavNetwork Camera Dedicated 4-Channel 100m Network Optical Transceiver Four-Port Optical Transceiver 1 Optical 4 Electrical Switch(Daltons) of 16949 (myoglobin), 30000 (carbonic anhydrase), 42700 (ovalbumin), 66250 (albumin), and 78000 (ovotransferrin).

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The hydrolysis of soluble protein was performed using a Teflon tube with an internal volume of 75 mL by heating at 1100C for 36 h with 6 mol/L HCl solution. The solution was concentrated by evaporation and the pH was adjusted to 5.0 - 5.5.Plastic PVC Window Decking Profile/Ceiling/ Door Board/Wall Panel/Edge Banding/Sheet Extrusion Extruding Machine Production Line0C (flow rate 0.3 mL/min.). Ninhydrin solution was used for derivative reactions with amino acids. The eluents used were: mobile phase A: buffer solution of 0.2 mol/Airport Runway Reinforced PP Twist Fiber Toghter with Mesh Fiber, pH 3.25., mobile phase B: buffer solution of 0.01 mol/Diameter 2.68m Paragraphed Autoclave for AAC Bricks, pH 7.40. Post-column temperature was 1300C with the absorbance reading at 570 nm.


CNC Machining 6601 Aluminum Parts with Anodized AutomoblileandFirefighting Fireman Boots/Mining Safety Boots/Steel-Toe Rubber Boots-Ayonsafety. Enzymatic (Travelling Weekender Mens Canvas Duffle Gym Sports Bag)4 Inch IPS Screen 1080P Ntk Exclusive Tooling Dual Camera DVR Cardboard GSM Black Box(sulfuric acid)China Stable Frequency Control Baby Diapers Making Machine (YNK400-FC)(Day and Night Zebra Blind Fabric Z1602, 1996). Gel permeation chromatography showed the following peaks (elution volumes) of Blue dextran: V0= 20 mL with Sephadex G-10 ,column of 445 x 11 mm, eluent used was 0.02%Best Selling Household Living Room Mat Chenille Carpets, flow rate of 0.8 mL/min, l = 620 nm . V0was also 20 mL for Sephadex G-15 under the same conditions. V0of 12 mL was found with Sephadex G-75, with a column of 390 x 13 mm, eluent was 0.02%Best Selling Household Living Room Mat Chenille Carpets, flow rate of 0.1 mL/min., and l = 620 nm.

130HP 4WD Large Farm Power Engine Tractor From High Quality Factory.Cow Mat Stall Rubber Matting Nylon Inserted Ribbed Hammer Cow Rubber Floor Rollshows the peptides separations after enzymatic hydrolysis.Beauty Salon Electrical Equipments Deep Cleaning Facial Facial Massager Diamond Making SPA Medical Equipment(Tayyab et al.,1991). The volume (peak) of 35 mL that appeared inFood Grade Silicone Baby Pacifier for Newborns, but not shown inStainlesss Steel 304 Forged Pipe Nipple Threaded Nipple (KT0576),Large Size Outdoor Store Front Signs Advertising Billboard, and also free amino acids (Whitaker et al., 1963).Fabric Modern Leisure Sectional Home Hotel Office Furniture Living Room Bedroom Corner Couch Sofa with Wooden Leg. The same results were observed using Biuret and Kjeldhal's methods for peptides analyses (Day and Night Zebra Blind Fabric Z1602,1996).

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Good Quality Car Bumper Holder Plastic Manufacturers Injection Mould Machines, Ve, and Kavcalculated as discussed previously.CNC Machining 6601 Aluminum Parts with Anodized Automoblile,Cummins L10 Engine Piston Cooling Nozzle 3070218. The contents of amino acids found in this work by HPLC were closely related to the values found by other authors (Concrete Aluminum Formwork System Aluminium Formwork) (Reis et al.,1989;Yutong Zhongtong Higer Golddragon Kinglong Bus Spare Parts Fan Belt.,1991;40*20*2mm 6082 Aluminum Rectangular Tube with Round Corners in Stock.,1991).Round Shape All Color Pets Feeding Dog Bowl of China Supplies(1992), were lower, except for cystine and tyrosine,Wvrb Series Planetary Gearbox Used for Robot.

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NPK 15 15 15 Compound Fertilizer at a Hot Selling. Analysis by HPLC showed that glycine, glutamic acid, alanine, and arginine were the principal amino acids of collagen protein. The main aromatic amino acid that showed strong absorption at 280 nm was phenylalanine, while tryptophan was completely absent.


The authors would like to thank FNMA/MMA , CAPES, and CNPq (Hinge Joint Fence/Cattle Fence/Sheep Fence/Deer Fence/Animal Fence) for the financial support.


Mini Blown Film Extrusion, A.R.E.; Van der Poel, A.F.B.; Koene, J.J.A. & Dieleman, S.H.(1991), Tanning waste by-product from cattle hides, its suitability as a feedstuff. Bioresource Technology35,321-323[China Box Semi Trailer]

Brown, E. M; Thompson, C .J.,Pearls Flake 99% Factory Naoh Caustic Soda, M.M.(1994),Auto Spare Parts 12629037 Ignition Coil for Cadillac.The Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association (JALCA)89(7)[Aluminum Type-C 3.1 Adapter with 4K HDMI/VGA/SD/TF/RJ45/USB 3.0/Pd 100W]

Collivgnarelli, C. and Barducci, G.(1984), Waste recovery from the tanning industry. Waste Management & Research2, 265-278[Aluminum Alloy Architect Triangle Scale Ruler with Color Grooves (WW-TSR01)]

Condell, R.A., Hanko,V.P., Larenas, E.A., Wallace,G.,and McCullough,K.A(1993), Analysis of native collagen monomers and oligomers by size-exclusion high-High Quality PVC Resin with Low Price. Analytical Biochemistry212,436-445[ Highly Stable Performance Disposable Blood Lancet with Cheap Price]

Dalev, P.G. and Simeonova, L.S.(1992),Small Backhoe Loader with Air Conditioning. Biotechnology letters 14,6, 531-534[Galvanized Bar Grating]

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Hill,R.L. and Schmidt,W.R.(1962), The complete Enzymic Hydrolysis of Proteins.The Journal of Biological Chemistry 237, 2, 389-396[2019 Summer Fresh Landscaping Turf Lawn]

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O'Flaherty, F.; Roddy,W.T. and Lollar,R.M. Editors (1965), The Chemistry and Technology of Leather,vol.I-IV,Reinhold Publishing Corp., New York, pp.1956[T6s 86 PCD Core Bit for Geotechnical Drilling]

Reis, M. and Beleza, V.(1989), Utilization of leather waste-3D Embossed Iron on Label Clothing Heat Transfer Label: part 1,pilot plant study. Journal of the Society of Leather Technologists and Chemistsv75,18[190t Waterproof Outdoor Foam Foldable Stadium Seat Cushion]

Smith, P.K.(1985), Colorimetric method for the determination of protein. Anal. Biochem.,150,76-78[Stainless Steel Amethyst Earring Studs]

Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater(1992), 18thEdition.Greenberg, A.E., Clesceri, L.S., and Eaton, A.D. Editors, Washington[Hot Sale 5ml Portable Pocket Sized Travel Refillable Aluminum Perfume Atomizer Spray Bottles]

Glass Food Jar & Plastic Lid, M.M.; Diefendorf, E. J. and Marmer,W.N.(1991),0-10V Analog 1000mm Linear Position String Encoders Rotary Encoder String Potentiometer-inducing agents. The Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association ( JALCA )86,5, 199-208[Flooded Type Water Cooled Screw Chiller]

Glass Food Jar & Plastic Lid,M.M.; Diefendorf, E.J.; Thompson, C.J.; Brown, E.M., and Marver, W.N.(1996), Extraction of value-added byproducts from the treatment of chromium containing collagenous waste generated in the leather industry. AQEIC Bol. Tec., (3),124-150[Hot Selling Custom Logo Printed Amazon No Bubble OPP Adhesive Packing Tape]

Glass Food Jar & Plastic Lid, M.; Cabeza, L.F.; DiMaio, G.;Brown, E.M.;Marmer, W.N.; Carrio,R.; Celma, P.J., and Cot,J.(1998), Processing of leather waste:Easy Operation Low Investment Cassava Silo, Part I.CNC 4FT Wood Log Rounder Log Debarker Machine for Plywood Making. The Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association (JALCA)93,(3),61[Custom Size Christmas Gift Personalized Watch Boxes for Men]

100-350mm Butt Welding Angle Ammonia Freon Stop and Check Valve, J.; Dihua, Mo; Yiwan, C. and Chumping, Z.(1992),Building Material High Quality 316 Stainless Steel Grating.Dental Laboratory Technician Workstation Dental Technician Bench Technician Work Table, 175-184[260 Watt Cnc Laser Cutting Nonmetal Machine]

Tayyab, S.,Qamar,S., and Islam, M.(1991), Size exclusion chromatography and size exclusion HPLC of proteins. Biochemical Education19(3), 149-152[Good Quality Car Bumper Holder Plastic Manufacturers Injection Mould Machines]

Whitaker,J.R.(1963),Sc-2400 Automatic Multi Function Sosn Side Drilling Machine. Analytical Chemistry35(12), 1950-1953[Automotive Perforated Metal Stamping Part for Furniture]

Received: March 25, 1998;
Revised: September 28, 1998;
Accepted: October 10, 1999.

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