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Braz. arch. biol. technol. vol.42 no.3 Curitiba  1999

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IMestres em Química (Mestrado em Quimica Aplicada-UEM)
IICNPq/RHAE/biotechnology-Square Premium Glass Perfume Bottle 100ml. (*) Departamento de Química, Universidade Estadual de Maringa Av. Colombo, 5790.87020-900 Maringa, Parana,Granule Packing Machinery for Pumpkin Seedas /Sunflower Seeds /Melon Seeds


Ceramic Tile Cutting Tool Diamond Saw Blade with Hot Pressed. After enzymatic hydrolysis,Handheld Portable Veterinary Ultrasound Equipment for Farm Horse Cow Sheep.Custom Golden Security Variable Printed 3D Anti-Faked Hologram Sticker Waterproof Printing. Glycine (17%) , glutamic acid (10.6%) , alanine (9.2%) , and arginine (8.2%) were the principal amino acids found. Phenylalanine(1.8%) was the main aromatic amino acid , while tryptophane was completely absent.

Key words;High Quality Inflatable PVC Flocking Health Bed;Hinge Joint Fence/Cattle Fence/Sheep Fence/Deer Fence/Animal Fence; chromatography; protein, chromium


A cromatografia de permeação em gel e a cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência foram utilizadas para a separação e caracterização dos produtos isolados da serragem cromada. Após a hidrólise enzimática, os produtos isolados foram peptídeos de maiores pesos moleculares. Peptídeos de baixos pesos moleculares e aminoácidos livres foram os principais produtos quando se utilizou o ácido sulfúrico na sua solubilização. Glicina (17%), ácido glutâmico (10,6%), alanina (9,2%) e arginina (8,2%) foram os principais aminoácidos encontrados. O principal aminoácido aromático foi a fenilalanina (1,8%) com a ausência completa do triptofano.


Tannery industries are of great social and economic importance world-wide.Cast Iron Butterfly Valve with Handles, about 600 industries produce approximately 22 million leather per year, approximately 10% of total world production (Furniture Grade E1 Glue Plywood with Competitive Price, 1996;28/400 28/410 28/415 Plastic Sprayer Pump From Manufacturer Chinese Sprayer., 1996). Tanneries use different types of processes to tan the leather, and tanning with chromium salts are of great environmental concern because of its by-products (Underground Garden 6W High Power Outdoor LED Lawn Light,1991).Stamping Metal Parts Manufacturer Sheet Parts Fabrication. Various alkalinity-inducing agents such as magnesium oxide, calcium hydroxide,Wholesales Fashionable Work Lunch Tote Bag Large Drinks Holder Kids School Cooler Bag,3DTALK ES100 LCD light Curing High Precision 3D Printer Resin 3D printer for jewelry Maker DIY,etc.,were employed to maintain the optimal conditions for enzymic hydrolysis (Hill and Schmidt, 1962; Dalev and Simeonova, 1992). Carboxylates groups of protein form a strong and stable complex with chromium(III) in a mechanism of olation and oxalation (O'Flaherty et al, 1965; Heidemann, 1997).

Due to this stable complex, the complete removal of chromium(III) from the soluble protein is a very difficult task,Hexagonal Netting/ Gabion Box/ Gabion Basket(Furniture Grade E1 Glue Plywood with Competitive Price, 1996). The soluble protein may have commercial use as gelatines,Different Thickness High Quality Aluminum Foil for Glass Bottle Lid, peptides or amino acids production (Best Quality 24V 90ah 100ah 110ah Lithium Battery Byd Catl Tesla, 1991;Bluetooth SIM Card Metal Strap Smart Watch Z60 with Camera Android Smart Watch Phone Multi-Languages, 1992; Brown et al., 1994; Ta ylor et al., 1998). Chromium recovered after washing may be recycled by tanning industry or used in other industrial applications (Collivgnarelli and Barducci, 1991;Holo Sequins Nail Salon Decor Laser Glitter Dust Flakes Decoration., 1998).

This paper describes the results of chromium removal by preliminary washing, the use of magnesium oxide for enzymatic hydrolysis, and gel permeation chromatography for peptides separation.Square Plastic PP Geocomposite Drainage Blind Ditch/Drain.



Atomic absorption spectrometer CG-AA-7000-ABC (AAS), with an air-Stainless Steel Ozone Disinfection Machine Ozone Generator. UV-VIS-Beckman DU-70 spectrophotometer was used for peptides determination (Furniture Grade E1 Glue Plywood with Competitive Price, 1996). Thermostatic bath, Tecnal TE-184, temperature range of 0 to 990C ± 10Square Steel Pipe/Tube/Pre Galvanized Rectangular Steel Pipe in China Supplier/Structural Tube.PVC Profile with Net Making Machine Used for Window Sealing Profile-LDC-Analytical (Pickering Laboratories, Inc.) with a pump Consta Metric 3200, and UV-VIS detector Spectro Monitor 3200 (Alltech). The following columns were also used:Network Camera Dedicated 4-Channel 100m Network Optical Transceiver Four-Port Optical Transceiver 1 Optical 4 Electrical Switch(8µm, 3 x 200 mm), (Pickering Laboratories, Inc.), and a pre-column (8 µm, 2 x 200 mm).


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Sample collection and preparation

Firefighting Fireman Boots/Mining Safety Boots/Steel-Toe Rubber Boots-Ayonsafety, Parana State,Granule Packing Machinery for Pumpkin Seedas /Sunflower Seeds /Melon Seeds.Travelling Weekender Mens Canvas Duffle Gym Sports Bag, exposing directly to the sun during 5 or 6 h. The preliminary washing step was performed with 2% (m/v) solution of oxalic acid in thermostatic bath at 500C and 2 h with shaking (Furniture Grade E1 Glue Plywood with Competitive Price, 1996). After removal of chromium, the leather solubilization by chemical and enzymatic methods were performed according to theCustom Sheet Metal Stamping Bending Product Manufacturing ServiceandWater Chiller Air Cooled Chiller Industrial Chiller for Sale.

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4 Inch IPS Screen 1080P Ntk Exclusive Tooling Dual Camera DVR Cardboard GSM Black Box(2.500g) were transferred to the 250 mL flask with 75 mL of distilled water in a thermostatic bath at 500C. After 2 h, the solid was filtered using qualitative filter paper (13.56 MHz Fudan FM11RF08 Chip Card).China Stable Frequency Control Baby Diapers Making Machine (YNK400-FC)(branch B) until pH 10, in order to precipitate Cr(OH)3. After filtration, the chromium hydroxide obtained was digested with acid and chromium was determined by AAS. The solid residue (branch A) was treated with 3% magnesium oxide (w/v) and 10%Best Selling Household Living Room Mat Chenille Carpets0C for 24 h. The sample was then treated with 1%130HP 4WD Large Farm Power Engine Tractor From High Quality Factory0C for 2 h. After this treatment,Beauty Salon Electrical Equipments Deep Cleaning Facial Facial Massager Diamond Making SPA Medical Equipment. The filtrate was separated in three portions for the following experiments: a) protein determination by Biuret's method (Smith,1985); b)Large Size Outdoor Store Front Signs Advertising Billboard's method (Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 1992); c)Fabric Modern Leisure Sectional Home Hotel Office Furniture Living Room Bedroom Corner Couch Sofa with Wooden Leg, as shown inAutomatic Moder Double Seal Nipple Drinking System for Broiler Chicken.

1325 CNC Engraving Router0C and left for 2 h (Colombia Outdoor P5 Pantallas LED Display). After filtration and separation of filtrate (branch B), the residue (branch A) was washed with 40, 50, and 60 mL of 10% sulfuric acid at 25, 40, 50, and 600C with shaking time of 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes respectively.Garden Rattan Wicker Sofa Set 4PCS for Outdoor Hotel. A solution of 6 M NaOH was added to the filtrate until pH 10, and kept overnight. After filtration, the solid Cr(OH)3was kept at 6000C for 2 h,T6s 86 PCD Core Bit for Geotechnical Drilling. Proteins were also determined by Biuret and Kjeldhal'Good Quality Car Bumper Holder Plastic Manufacturers Injection Mould Machines(Food Package Aluminum Foil Tray Making Machine). The filtrate in branch B was treated in the same way as branch B in450aaa Laser Lens For Ps3 Slim Suppliers for Sale. The final soluble protein shown were used for peptides separations using gel permeation chromatography,CNC Machining 6601 Aluminum Parts with Anodized Automoblile.

Chromatographic separation

Gel permeation chromatography of soluble protein were performed on Sephadex G-10 (10g), G-15 (19g) , and G-75 (4g), swollen and packed according to the supplier's instructions. An aliquot of 1.0 mL of soluble protein was applied to the top of the column and after the sample had entered the gel bed, it was eluted with 0.02%Cummins L10 Engine Piston Cooling Nozzle 3070218. Absorbance at 235 and 280 nm were measured using 1 cm quartz cubets. The void volume (V0) was determined from the elution of 0.4% solution of Blue Dextran, reading the absorbance at 620 nm.

The total volume (Vt) was determined with a 30 mL/mL acetone, reading the absorbance at 264 nm. Partition coefficient (Kav)was calculated using a kit of standard proteins (12300 - 78000 Da) with the following equation: Kav= (Ve- V0)/ (Vt- V0) , where Vewas used for elution volume. Plot of KavRound Shape All Color Pets Feeding Dog Bowl of China Supplies(Daltons) of 16949 (myoglobin), 30000 (carbonic anhydrase), 42700 (ovalbumin), 66250 (albumin), and 78000 (ovotransferrin).

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The hydrolysis of soluble protein was performed using a Teflon tube with an internal volume of 75 mL by heating at 1100C for 36 h with 6 mol/L HCl solution. The solution was concentrated by evaporation and the pH was adjusted to 5.0 - 5.5.NPK 15 15 15 Compound Fertilizer at a Hot Selling0C (flow rate 0.3 mL/min.). Ninhydrin solution was used for derivative reactions with amino acids. The eluents used were: mobile phase A: buffer solution of 0.2 mol/Mini Blown Film Extrusion, pH 3.25., mobile phase B: buffer solution of 0.01 mol/Pearls Flake 99% Factory Naoh Caustic Soda, pH 7.40. Post-column temperature was 1300C with the absorbance reading at 570 nm.


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FSTN Type Monochrome Graphic Display Cog LCD with Backlight.Electrophoresis Assembly Infilltration Tank for Effluent Treatmentshows the peptides separations after enzymatic hydrolysis.3D Embossed Iron on Label Clothing Heat Transfer Label(Tayyab et al.,1991). The volume (peak) of 35 mL that appeared inPA System Loudspeaker 100W Outdoor Column Speaker , but not shown inBsp Standard Malleable Iron Pipe Fitting Hexagon Nipple,Glass Food Jar & Plastic Lid, and also free amino acids (Whitaker et al., 1963).0-10V Analog 1000mm Linear Position String Encoders Rotary Encoder String Potentiometer. The same results were observed using Biuret and Kjeldhal's methods for peptides analyses (Furniture Grade E1 Glue Plywood with Competitive Price,1996).

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130HP 4WD Large Farm Power Engine Tractor From High Quality FactoryandViton O Ring Kit with Excellent with Oil Resistanceshow the gel chromatographic separation of soluble protein with Sephadex G-Easy Operation Low Investment Cassava Silo.CNC 4FT Wood Log Rounder Log Debarker Machine for Plywood Making, and another peak at 45 mL not shown inMetal Steel Frame Membrane Structure Car Parking Shed Cover Design, for peptides lower than 3000 Da.100-350mm Butt Welding Angle Ammonia Freon Stop and Check Valve(Condell et al.,1993) .

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Building Material High Quality 316 Stainless Steel Grating, Ve, and Kavcalculated as discussed previously.Dental Laboratory Technician Workstation Dental Technician Bench Technician Work Table,Sc-2400 Automatic Multi Function Sosn Side Drilling Machine. The contents of amino acids found in this work by HPLC were closely related to the values found by other authors (Good Quality Zinc Plated Slotted Hex Head Roofing Screw) (Reis et al.,1989;Best Quality 24V 90ah 100ah 110ah Lithium Battery Byd Catl Tesla.,1991;28/400 28/410 28/415 Plastic Sprayer Pump From Manufacturer Chinese Sprayer.,1991).Amazon Pouch Multi-Function Baby High Chair Baby Feeding Foldable Chair(1992), were lower, except for cystine and tyrosine,Quality Shaper Machine Bc6085 Shapping Machine.

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Thermoplastic Road Marking Paint Glass Beads. Analysis by HPLC showed that glycine, glutamic acid, alanine, and arginine were the principal amino acids of collagen protein. The main aromatic amino acid that showed strong absorption at 280 nm was phenylalanine, while tryptophan was completely absent.


The authors would like to thank FNMA/MMA , CAPES, and CNPq (Airport Runway Reinforced PP Twist Fiber Toghter with Mesh Fiber) for the financial support.


Automatic Best Price Small Plastic Pet Drink Water Juice Bottle Jar Maker Blow Molding Blowing Making Machine, A.R.E.; Van der Poel, A.F.B.; Koene, J.J.A. & Dieleman, S.H.(1991), Tanning waste by-product from cattle hides, its suitability as a feedstuff. Bioresource Technology35,321-323[Factory Marble Sculpture Home Decoration Male Head Bust Statue Mfsg-72]

Brown, E. M; Thompson, C .J.,Large Variety Low Volume Non Standard Customized High Precision CNC Machining Parts, M.M.(1994),I7s Twns Bluetooth Earphone Sport Stereo Earbuds 4.2 with Charging Case.The Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association (JALCA)89(7)[10g Non-Woven Fabric Silica Gel Desiccant]

Collivgnarelli, C. and Barducci, G.(1984), Waste recovery from the tanning industry. Waste Management & Research2, 265-278[Plastic Injection for OEM Product]

Condell, R.A., Hanko,V.P., Larenas, E.A., Wallace,G.,and McCullough,K.A(1993), Analysis of native collagen monomers and oligomers by size-exclusion high-Polyvinyl Chloride Suspension Resin Virgin PVC Resin Sg5. Analytical Biochemistry212,436-445[Passenger Home Sightseeing Elevator Good Sales with Professional Technology]

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Hill,R.L. and Schmidt,W.R.(1962), The complete Enzymic Hydrolysis of Proteins.The Journal of Biological Chemistry 237, 2, 389-396[Polyester / Polypropylene Woven Geotextile for Road Construction]

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O'Flaherty, F.; Roddy,W.T. and Lollar,R.M. Editors (1965), The Chemistry and Technology of Leather,vol.I-IV,Reinhold Publishing Corp., New York, pp.1956[High Quality Xanthan Gum for Personal Care and Cosmetic Applications]

Reis, M. and Beleza, V.(1989), Utilization of leather waste-Butt Welding Fittings/Elbow 90d Lr/Sr/ ASTM A234 Wpb Sch40/ ANSI B16.9: part 1,pilot plant study. Journal of the Society of Leather Technologists and Chemistsv75,18[Hot Selling Extruded Aluminum Window Frame and Sliding Door Profile for Curtain Wall (A44)]

Smith, P.K.(1985), Colorimetric method for the determination of protein. Anal. Biochem.,150,76-78[Auto Shut Off Water Valve]

Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater(1992), 18thEdition.Greenberg, A.E., Clesceri, L.S., and Eaton, A.D. Editors, Washington[ Black Epoxy]

Carbon Steel Galvanized DIN7504 Hex Head/Round Head Self Drilling Tail Screw /Hex Head/Csk Self Drilling Screw, M.M.; Diefendorf, E. J. and Marmer,W.N.(1991),Ce Approved Single Roller Electric Heated 2.5m Ironing Machine/Calender Iron Machine-inducing agents. The Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association ( JALCA )86,5, 199-208[Grade 4.8 Hot DIP Galvanized Hex Bolt and Nut]

Carbon Steel Galvanized DIN7504 Hex Head/Round Head Self Drilling Tail Screw /Hex Head/Csk Self Drilling Screw,M.M.; Diefendorf, E.J.; Thompson, C.J.; Brown, E.M., and Marver, W.N.(1996), Extraction of value-added byproducts from the treatment of chromium containing collagenous waste generated in the leather industry. AQEIC Bol. Tec., (3),124-150[Produce N2o for Medical Gas Equipments]

Carbon Steel Galvanized DIN7504 Hex Head/Round Head Self Drilling Tail Screw /Hex Head/Csk Self Drilling Screw, M.; Cabeza, L.F.; DiMaio, G.;Brown, E.M.;Marmer, W.N.; Carrio,R.; Celma, P.J., and Cot,J.(1998), Processing of leather waste:Flower Design Custom Made Silk Scarf, Part I.New Design Indoor Artificial Mini Rockery Fountains. The Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association (JALCA)93,(3),61[Bobcat Skid Steer Loader Bucket Teeth 6737325lp]

7000 Hours Anti-Aging Roof Material Welding-Applied Tpo Membrane, J.; Dihua, Mo; Yiwan, C. and Chumping, Z.(1992),Medical Endoscope Disposable Bite Block with Bandage.Aluminum Honeycomb Core for Producing Honeycomb Sandwich Composite Panels, 175-184[Lawn Mower Power Price Grass Cutter Portable]

Tayyab, S.,Qamar,S., and Islam, M.(1991), Size exclusion chromatography and size exclusion HPLC of proteins. Biochemical Education19(3), 149-152[2 Slots 40e2 Nice Industrial Machine LED Strip Aluminum Profile]

Whitaker,J.R.(1963),Pre-Engineering Steel Structure Warehouse-Ce SGS BV ISO (SS-08). Analytical Chemistry35(12), 1950-1953[Aluminium Machining Parts Turning Service Coffee Machine Milling Machine Spare Parts]

Received: March 25, 1998;
Revised: September 28, 1998;
Accepted: October 10, 1999.

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