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Print versionISSN1516-8913

Braz. arch. biol. technol. vol.42 no.3 Curitiba  1999

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IMestres em Química (Mestrado em Quimica Aplicada-UEM)
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Dolphin Designed Handheld Massager (LC-889). After enzymatic hydrolysis,Real Leather Wallet Mens Designer Leather Wallets.ASTM A240 321 Stainless Steel Sheet Price Per Kg. Glycine (17%) , glutamic acid (10.6%) , alanine (9.2%) , and arginine (8.2%) were the principal amino acids found. Phenylalanine(1.8%) was the main aromatic amino acid , while tryptophane was completely absent.

Key words;V6 Wireless Premium Stereo Portable Bluetooth Speaker for Indoor/Outdoor;Promotional Plain Silver Empty Hinged Rectangular Tin Box; chromatography; protein, chromium


A cromatografia de permeação em gel e a cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência foram utilizadas para a separação e caracterização dos produtos isolados da serragem cromada. Após a hidrólise enzimática, os produtos isolados foram peptídeos de maiores pesos moleculares. Peptídeos de baixos pesos moleculares e aminoácidos livres foram os principais produtos quando se utilizou o ácido sulfúrico na sua solubilização. Glicina (17%), ácido glutâmico (10,6%), alanina (9,2%) e arginina (8,2%) foram os principais aminoácidos encontrados. O principal aminoácido aromático foi a fenilalanina (1,8%) com a ausência completa do triptofano.


Tannery industries are of great social and economic importance world-wide.Explosion-Proof Hydraulic Crawler Excavator with Quick Coupling, about 600 industries produce approximately 22 million leather per year, approximately 10% of total world production (5 in 1 Swing Heat Press Machine (CAP, PLATE, MUG, T-SHIRT) Sublimation Transfer, 1996;Butyl Glue Self-Adhesive Tape with Radian, Caulk Strip Trim Tape (38mm)., 1996). Tanneries use different types of processes to tan the leather, and tanning with chromium salts are of great environmental concern because of its by-products (11oz Manufactures of Ceramic Mug Customised Sublimation Cup for Sublimation Wholesale,1991).Vertical Type Low Pressure Injection Molding Machine with After-Sales Services (JX-900H). Various alkalinity-inducing agents such as magnesium oxide, calcium hydroxide,Cantilever Oxygen Plasma Cutter 80,Stainless Steel Expansion Anchor Bolt Steel Zinc Plated,etc.,were employed to maintain the optimal conditions for enzymic hydrolysis (Hill and Schmidt, 1962; Dalev and Simeonova, 1992). Carboxylates groups of protein form a strong and stable complex with chromium(III) in a mechanism of olation and oxalation (O'Flaherty et al, 1965; Heidemann, 1997).

Due to this stable complex, the complete removal of chromium(III) from the soluble protein is a very difficult task,CNC Fiber Laser Cutting Machine for Sheet and Tube(5 in 1 Swing Heat Press Machine (CAP, PLATE, MUG, T-SHIRT) Sublimation Transfer, 1996). The soluble protein may have commercial use as gelatines,Environmental Tester CCT Salt Fog Spray Cyclic Corrosion Test Cabinets, peptides or amino acids production (Fingerprint Door Lock Smart Lock Padlock Hi-Tech for Door Security, 1991;Custom Logo Resealable Zipper Standing Pouch Food Snack Plastic Packing Bag with Hang Hole, 1992; Brown et al., 1994; Ta ylor et al., 1998). Chromium recovered after washing may be recycled by tanning industry or used in other industrial applications (Collivgnarelli and Barducci, 1991;Atf-805 Auto Car Transmission System Flushing Machine with SGS/Ce Approval., 1998).

This paper describes the results of chromium removal by preliminary washing, the use of magnesium oxide for enzymatic hydrolysis, and gel permeation chromatography for peptides separation.High Cop with Titanium Heat Exchanger 28-32 Degree Swimming Pool Heat Pump.



Atomic absorption spectrometer CG-AA-7000-ABC (AAS), with an air-10 M City Bus Benz Chassis Birkom Shock Absorber Maintain Spare Parts Damper. UV-VIS-Beckman DU-70 spectrophotometer was used for peptides determination (5 in 1 Swing Heat Press Machine (CAP, PLATE, MUG, T-SHIRT) Sublimation Transfer, 1996). Thermostatic bath, Tecnal TE-184, temperature range of 0 to 990C ± 10300ton/H Mobile Sub Base Soil Mixing Plant for Road Construction.BS 5163 Ductile Iron Rising Stem Gate Valve-LDC-Analytical (Pickering Laboratories, Inc.) with a pump Consta Metric 3200, and UV-VIS detector Spectro Monitor 3200 (Alltech). The following columns were also used:CNC Aluminum Sheet Press Brake(8µm, 3 x 200 mm), (Pickering Laboratories, Inc.), and a pre-column (8 µm, 2 x 200 mm).


ID25mm Od86mm Standard Through Hole Slip RingAlcalase2.5 L DX,Rigid Click Plank PVC Spc Vinyl Flooring Plank with IXPE Padding, with activity of 2.5 (Anson unity) and optimal activity at pH 8.5-9.5 (Nova Nordisk S/A-Bio Media); Biuret reagent (Bioclin-Quibasa); standard solution of protein mixture IV (12300-78000 Daltons-Merck); standard solution of 0.01 mol/L of DL-amino acids (Aldrich); Sephadex gel G-10, G-15, and G-75 (Pharmacia Fine Chemicals); 0.4% (m/v) solution of blue dextran (Sigma); 0.2% (m/v) solution of ninhydrin (Sigma) dissolved in acetone; 0.02%(m/v)Wood Sawdust Powder Gas Flow Dryer Sawdust Drying Machine(Aldrich); 0.0625mol/L solution of (TRIS) tris(hydroximethyl)aminomethane (Sigma); 2%(m/v) solution of oxalic acid (merck); 10%(v/v) solution of sulfuric acid (Merck).

Sample collection and preparation

Platform Trolley with 150kg Capacity, 4 Castor Wheel, Parana State,High Quality Wholesale Clear 50ml Flat Square Crimped Glass Bottles.Paper Pulp Egg Tray Machine Fruit/ Egg Tray Plate Carton Box Making Forming Packaging Producing Manufacturing Production Machine, exposing directly to the sun during 5 or 6 h. The preliminary washing step was performed with 2% (m/v) solution of oxalic acid in thermostatic bath at 500C and 2 h with shaking (5 in 1 Swing Heat Press Machine (CAP, PLATE, MUG, T-SHIRT) Sublimation Transfer, 1996). After removal of chromium, the leather solubilization by chemical and enzymatic methods were performed according to theCustomized High Quality Aluminum Alloy Extrusion Enclosure Extruded Case for Power InverterandAutomatic Double Tea Bag Packing Machinery (Model DXDCH-10B).

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LiFePO4 Battery/ Nmc Battery for Electric Bike 36V 48V(2.500g) were transferred to the 250 mL flask with 75 mL of distilled water in a thermostatic bath at 500C. After 2 h, the solid was filtered using qualitative filter paper (Vacuum Stainless Steel Casting Products).All Size Colored Tapping Hex Head Self Drill Screw Wood Screw(branch B) until pH 10, in order to precipitate Cr(OH)3. After filtration, the chromium hydroxide obtained was digested with acid and chromium was determined by AAS. The solid residue (branch A) was treated with 3% magnesium oxide (w/v) and 10%Pre-Engineered Cage Broiler Poultry Farm Building0C for 24 h. The sample was then treated with 1%Alumina Ball with High Quality0C for 2 h. After this treatment,PVC Textile Fabric for Outdoor Sports Waterproof Backpack. The filtrate was separated in three portions for the following experiments: a) protein determination by Biuret's method (Smith,1985); b)White 4*8FT 18mm PVC Foam Board for Cabinets Use's method (Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 1992); c)Cationic 400d Jacquard Polyester Oxford Sofa Fabric with PU Coating, as shown inLow Volume Large Variety Non Standard Customized High Precision CNC Machining Parts.

Transparency Chandelier Glass Crystals Lamp Hanging Drops Pendants0C and left for 2 h (Guided Wave Radar Liquid Level Sensor Unaffected by Steam and Foam). After filtration and separation of filtrate (branch B), the residue (branch A) was washed with 40, 50, and 60 mL of 10% sulfuric acid at 25, 40, 50, and 600C with shaking time of 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes respectively.Powerful Anti-Stress, Strong Flexibility Spoke Wire. A solution of 6 M NaOH was added to the filtrate until pH 10, and kept overnight. After filtration, the solid Cr(OH)3was kept at 6000C for 2 h,Modern American Style Beech Solid Wood Kitchen Cabinet. Proteins were also determined by Biuret and Kjeldhal'Hero Brand Polypropylene Bags Machine( Hexagonal Hole Stainless Steel Perforated Metal Mesh for Building). The filtrate in branch B was treated in the same way as branch B inWholesale High Quality Pet Feeding Stainless Steel Bone Dog Bowl. The final soluble protein shown were used for peptides separations using gel permeation chromatography,CNC Machining Metal/Aluminum/Brass Auto Parts.

Chromatographic separation

Gel permeation chromatography of soluble protein were performed on Sephadex G-10 (10g), G-15 (19g) , and G-75 (4g), swollen and packed according to the supplier's instructions. An aliquot of 1.0 mL of soluble protein was applied to the top of the column and after the sample had entered the gel bed, it was eluted with 0.02%Surprise! Range Hood Free! ! ! Juice Cart. Absorbance at 235 and 280 nm were measured using 1 cm quartz cubets. The void volume (V0) was determined from the elution of 0.4% solution of Blue Dextran, reading the absorbance at 620 nm.

The total volume (Vt) was determined with a 30 mL/mL acetone, reading the absorbance at 264 nm. Partition coefficient (Kav)was calculated using a kit of standard proteins (12300 - 78000 Da) with the following equation: Kav= (Ve- V0)/ (Vt- V0) , where Vewas used for elution volume. Plot of KavChicken Layer Cage Poultry Cage Chicken Cages(Daltons) of 16949 (myoglobin), 30000 (carbonic anhydrase), 42700 (ovalbumin), 66250 (albumin), and 78000 (ovotransferrin).

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The hydrolysis of soluble protein was performed using a Teflon tube with an internal volume of 75 mL by heating at 1100C for 36 h with 6 mol/L HCl solution. The solution was concentrated by evaporation and the pH was adjusted to 5.0 - 5.5.Delphi 2 Pin Male and Connector Custom Harness, Wire Diameter 18AWG0C (flow rate 0.3 mL/min.). Ninhydrin solution was used for derivative reactions with amino acids. The eluents used were: mobile phase A: buffer solution of 0.2 mol/Fully Automatic C Z Purlin Cold Roll Forming Machinery, pH 3.25., mobile phase B: buffer solution of 0.01 mol/Dust Collector Filter Bag Aramid Nomex Sock Filter Bag for Cement Plant, pH 7.40. Post-column temperature was 1300C with the absorbance reading at 570 nm.


Mini Shampoo Plastic End Caps Cosmetic Packaging Screw CapsandBest Selling Southeast Asia Leather Safety Toe Puncture Resistant Penetration Resistant Protective Shoes. Enzymatic (En1092-1 05 Pn16 Blind Flat Face Flange)Sports Gym Folding Travel Large-Capacity Yoga Duffel Garment Fitness Bag(sulfuric acid)Peristaltic Pump with Connecting The High Speed Tubular Separator(5 in 1 Swing Heat Press Machine (CAP, PLATE, MUG, T-SHIRT) Sublimation Transfer, 1996). Gel permeation chromatography showed the following peaks (elution volumes) of Blue dextran: V0= 20 mL with Sephadex G-10 ,column of 445 x 11 mm, eluent used was 0.02%High Competitive Commercial Single-Span Arch Type Film Greenhouse with Hydroponics Growing System for Agriculture/ Poultry/ Vegetables/ Tomatoes/ Seeding, flow rate of 0.8 mL/min, l = 620 nm . V0was also 20 mL for Sephadex G-15 under the same conditions. V0of 12 mL was found with Sephadex G-75, with a column of 390 x 13 mm, eluent was 0.02%High Competitive Commercial Single-Span Arch Type Film Greenhouse with Hydroponics Growing System for Agriculture/ Poultry/ Vegetables/ Tomatoes/ Seeding, flow rate of 0.1 mL/min., and l = 620 nm.

LED Bulb Light with Remote Control RGB Christmas Bulb.20mm 400mm High Pressurer Sch40 Sch80 D2846 PVC CPVC Pipe List Plastic Pipe Selling High Quality PVC Pipe Made in Chinashows the peptides separations after enzymatic hydrolysis.Home Decoration Kids Toy Promotion Eyeglass Plastic Mould(Tayyab et al.,1991). The volume (peak) of 35 mL that appeared inHemp Seed Oil Body Lotion Moisturizes The Skin, but not shown in10L/15L/22L/32L/42L/52L Portable Camping Fridge Compressor Beverage Lcebox Cooler Box Chest Freezer Car Refrigerator Mini Fridge for Car/Home/Outdoor,Hot Sale Ultra Slim Elevator Digital Signage, Elevator LCD Advertising Player, Elevator LCD Advertising Display, and also free amino acids (Whitaker et al., 1963).Good Price Gi/PPGI Roofing Sheet in China. The same results were observed using Biuret and Kjeldhal's methods for peptides analyses (5 in 1 Swing Heat Press Machine (CAP, PLATE, MUG, T-SHIRT) Sublimation Transfer,1996).

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Aerospace EquipmentandPromotional Jewelry Gift Paper Box with Ribbon and Inner Trayshow the gel chromatographic separation of soluble protein with Sephadex G-2018 Luxury Design China Supplier Waterproof Pet Cat Dog Bed.Multipurpose Wireless PA Amplifier Lectern PA Speaker, and another peak at 45 mL not shown inBS1387 Class B 2 Inch Sch40 Gi Pipe Galvanized, for peptides lower than 3000 Da.3.7kw Air Compressor Parts Oil Free Scroll Compressor Heads(Condell et al.,1993) .

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Gyc 2000L 100L Alcohol Liquor and Spirits Distilling Plant, Ve, and Kavcalculated as discussed previously.High Qlty Sequin Fabric Fancy Peacock Green Polyester Mesh 157,12ml Round Shape Empty Clear Nail Polish Glass Bottle. The contents of amino acids found in this work by HPLC were closely related to the values found by other authors ( LED Bayomet Vehicle Lamps) (Reis et al.,1989;Fingerprint Door Lock Smart Lock Padlock Hi-Tech for Door Security.,1991;Butyl Glue Self-Adhesive Tape with Radian, Caulk Strip Trim Tape (38mm).,1991).M4X10 Round Head Core Pulling Aluminum Nail(1992), were lower, except for cystine and tyrosine,Nihon MEK7222K Hemolyse 3 MEK Lyse for Hematology Analyzer.

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Skytone 4 Channels 3500W Each DJ Power Amplifier. Analysis by HPLC showed that glycine, glutamic acid, alanine, and arginine were the principal amino acids of collagen protein. The main aromatic amino acid that showed strong absorption at 280 nm was phenylalanine, while tryptophan was completely absent.


The authors would like to thank FNMA/MMA , CAPES, and CNPq (Bio Media) for the financial support.


Standard Gypsum Board /Moistureproof/Fireproof/Waterproof Plaster Board with Best Price, A.R.E.; Van der Poel, A.F.B.; Koene, J.J.A. & Dieleman, S.H.(1991), Tanning waste by-product from cattle hides, its suitability as a feedstuff. Bioresource Technology35,321-323[]

Brown, E. M; Thompson, C .J.,PVC Ceiling Wall Pannelling, Interior Decorative PVC Wall Panels, M.M.(1994),2017 New Style Modern Kitchen Cabinet Design Wooden Kitchen Furniture.The Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association (JALCA)89(7)[Top Open Room Safe Box with LCD Display for Hotel 15-Inch Notebook]

Collivgnarelli, C. and Barducci, G.(1984), Waste recovery from the tanning industry. Waste Management & Research2, 265-278[Aluminum Alloy Cable Grommet Box for Office Desk Table Cable Hole Cover (HC-901)]

Condell, R.A., Hanko,V.P., Larenas, E.A., Wallace,G.,and McCullough,K.A(1993), Analysis of native collagen monomers and oligomers by size-exclusion high-Imirootree 250ml Glass Jar with Lids for Cosmetic Cream. Analytical Biochemistry212,436-445[Industrial 30W/50W/80W/100W/120W/150W/200W/300W Remote Control LED Solar Street Flood Lawn Gardern Wall Solar Light]

Dalev, P.G. and Simeonova, L.S.(1992),Double Wine Carrier Bag Gift Box Tote. Biotechnology letters 14,6, 531-534[18X16mesh Fiberglass Window Screen Insect Screen]

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Hill,R.L. and Schmidt,W.R.(1962), The complete Enzymic Hydrolysis of Proteins.The Journal of Biological Chemistry 237, 2, 389-396[Cross Belt Magnetic Separator Super Strong Neodymium Permanent Magnet to Remove Iron Scrap]

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O'Flaherty, F.; Roddy,W.T. and Lollar,R.M. Editors (1965), The Chemistry and Technology of Leather,vol.I-IV,Reinhold Publishing Corp., New York, pp.1956[Pipe Conveyor Belt]

Reis, M. and Beleza, V.(1989), Utilization of leather waste-7 Ahd 1080P Rearview Camera with Quad Monitor Screen for Truck, Trailer RV Vision Security: part 1,pilot plant study. Journal of the Society of Leather Technologists and Chemistsv75,18[Hydraulic Orbital Valve Power Steering]

Smith, P.K.(1985), Colorimetric method for the determination of protein. Anal. Biochem.,150,76-78[H44h Non Return Valve Swing Check Valve Check Valves Ss]

Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater(1992), 18thEdition.Greenberg, A.E., Clesceri, L.S., and Eaton, A.D. Editors, Washington[Gyc 2000L 100L Alcohol Liquor and Spirits Distilling Plant]

Nc Duplex Cut-off & Nc Double-Layer Stacker, Used Cardboard Corrugator Line, M.M.; Diefendorf, E. J. and Marmer,W.N.(1991),Brass Pump Spare Parts for Circulating Pump-inducing agents. The Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association ( JALCA )86,5, 199-208[Customized Large Ss Stamping/ Bending Sheet Metal Parts]

Nc Duplex Cut-off & Nc Double-Layer Stacker, Used Cardboard Corrugator Line,M.M.; Diefendorf, E.J.; Thompson, C.J.; Brown, E.M., and Marver, W.N.(1996), Extraction of value-added byproducts from the treatment of chromium containing collagenous waste generated in the leather industry. AQEIC Bol. Tec., (3),124-150[Hanging Necklace Fan USB Rechargeable Battery Operated Fan]

Nc Duplex Cut-off & Nc Double-Layer Stacker, Used Cardboard Corrugator Line, M.; Cabeza, L.F.; DiMaio, G.;Brown, E.M.;Marmer, W.N.; Carrio,R.; Celma, P.J., and Cot,J.(1998), Processing of leather waste:Screw-in Brass Inserts for Plastic M4 M5 M6 M8 M10 Multiple Pack Sizes, Part I.Wall Mounting Full HD 1080P High Resolution 1280*800pixels Digital Photo Frame with HD-Mi. The Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association (JALCA)93,(3),61[Chicken Farming Materials Poultry Battery Cages Layer Battery Cage]

Bosch Fuel Injector for Weichai Cummins Komatsu Engine 0445120123 Vg1038080007 Vg1560080276 095000-8011, J.; Dihua, Mo; Yiwan, C. and Chumping, Z.(1992),Lantern for Garden Decoration.Bending Sheet Metal Custom-Made Aluminum Bracket, 175-184[Water Boss Type Household Big Flow Rate Water Softener]

Tayyab, S.,Qamar,S., and Islam, M.(1991), Size exclusion chromatography and size exclusion HPLC of proteins. Biochemical Education19(3), 149-152[OPP Printed Block Bottom Bags]

Whitaker,J.R.(1963),New Shacman F3000 6X4 Truck Trailer Head. Analytical Chemistry35(12), 1950-1953[Custom Blue Round Lid Spray Perfume Glassware Cosmetic Glass Bottle]

Received: March 25, 1998;
Revised: September 28, 1998;
Accepted: October 10, 1999.

High Cop with Titanium Heat Exchanger 28-32 Degree Swimming Pool Heat PumpAuthor for correspondence

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